Laboratory Facility



            Autoclaves provide a physical method for disinfection and sterilization. They work with a combination of steam, pressure and time. Autoclaves operate at high temperature and pressure in order to kill microorganisms and spores. They are used to decontaminate certain biological waste and sterilize media, instruments and lab ware. Regulated medical waste that might contain bacteria, viruses and other biological material are recommended to be inactivated by autoclaving before disposal.

          To be effective, the autoclave must reach and maintain a temperature of 121° C for at least 30 minutes by using saturated steam under at least 15 psi of pressure. Increased cycle time may be necessary depending upon the make-up and volume of the load. The rate of exhaust will depend upon the nature of the load. Dry material can be treated in a fast exhaust cycle, while liquids and biological waste require slow exhaust to prevent boiling over of super-heated liquids. 


        A hot air oven is a laboratory instrument that uses dry heat to sterilize laboratory equipment and other materials. That equipment cannot be wet or material that will not melt, catch fire, or change form when exposed to high temperatures are sterilized by using the dry heat sterilization method.Hot air oven also known as forced air circulating oven.Some examples of  material which cannot be sterilized by employing a hot air oven such as surgical dressings, rubber items, or plastic material.We can sterilize Glassware (like petri dishes, flasks, pipettes, and test tubes), Powder (like starch, zinc oxide, and sulfadiazine), Materials that contain oils, Metal equipment (like scalpels, scissors, and blades) by using hot air oven.

To destroy microorganisms and bacterial spores, a hot air oven provides extremely high temperatures over several hours.The widely used temperature-time relationship in hot air ovens to destroy microorganisms are 170 degrees Celsius for 30 minutes, 160 degrees Celsius for 60 minutes, and 150 degrees Celsius for 150 minutes. Most of the medical industries use hot air ovens to sterilize laboratory instruments and material due to its simple standard operating procedure and low price. It also provides quick-drying processes.The temperature range of a hot air oven is 50 to 300 ° C. It can be controlled by using a temperature regulator.In a hot air oven first, the surface of the material is sterilized then the temperature slowly enters the center of the item.


            Incubator, in microbiology, is an insulated and enclosed device that provides an optimal condition of temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions required for the growth of organisms.

          An incubator is a piece of vital laboratory equipment necessary for the cultivation of microorganisms under artificial conditions.

          An incubator can be used for the cultivation of both unicellular and multi cellular organisms. The cabinet is the main body of the incubator consisting of the double-walled cuboidal enclosure with a capacity ranging from 20 to 800L. The outer wall is made up of stainless steel sheets while the inner wall is made up of aluminum. The space between the two walls is filled with glass wool to provide insulation to the incubator. Similarly, other parameters like humidity and airflow are also maintained through different mechanisms that create an environment similar to the natural environment of the organisms. Similarly, they are provided with adjustments for maintaining the concentration of CO2 to balance the pH and humidity required for the growth of the organisms. 


            Most student microscopes are classified as light microscopes. Visible light passes and is bent through the lens system to enable the user to see the specimen. Light microscopes are advantageous for viewing living organisms, but since individual cells are generally transparent, their components are not distinguishable unless they are colored with special stains. Staining, however, usually kills the cells.

            Light microscopes, commonly used in undergraduate college laboratories, magnify up to approximately 400 times. Two parameters that are important in microscopy are magnification and resolving power. Magnification is the process of enlarging an object in appearance. Resolving power is the ability of a microscope to distinguish two adjacent structures as separate: the higher the resolution, the better the clarity and detail of the image. When oil immersion lenses are used for the study of small objects, magnification is usually increased to 1,000 times. In order to gain a better understanding of cellular structure and function, scientists typically use electron microscopes. 


            shaker is a piece of laboratory equipment used to mix, blend, or agitate substances in a tube or flask by shaking them. In order to provide optimal conditions for cell growth, some type of agitation or shaking is necessary to incorporate oxygen and evenly distribute nutrients throughout the culture media. That’s often done by placing a separate shaker inside an incubator, but incubator shakers combine those functions for a more convenient and efficient setup.

        The incubator shaker can be used for growth of just about any kind of cell including bacterial cultures, tissue cultures, and yeast. Incubator Shaker set-ups range from compact, bench top systems to large-capacity, floor-stackable units the size of a large freezer. 


            A laboratory colorimeter, also referred to as a digital colorimeter, is an instrument used to measure the absorbance of wavelengths of light at a particular frequency (color) by a sample. Digital colorimeters are widely used across different work areas including, environmental testing, clinical diagnostics, pharmaceutical analysis, and biochemistry. In particular, a portable colorimeter can be used for on-site environmental analyses. Similar to spectro photometers, laboratory colorimeters are used to determine the concentration of a known solute in a sample since the concentration of a solute is proportional to the absorbance. The wavelength filter used is very important since the wavelength of light that is transmitted by the colorimeter has to be same as that absorbed by the sample.


            Laminar air flow is an enclosed bench designed to maintain a working area devoid of contaminants. Many medical, microbiological and research laboratories require aseptic working environments in order to carry out specialized work. Laminar air Flow can provide the best solution. Laminar Flow Cabinets or laminar air flow is normally made of stainless steel without gaps or joints thereby preventing the accumulation of bacteria from collecting anywhere in the working area.

            Laminar air Flow is also known as clean benches because the air for the working conditions is thoroughly cleaned by the precision filtration process. Laminar air flow operates by the use of in-flow laminar air drawn through one or more HEPA filters, designed to create a particle-free working environment and provide product protection. Air is taken through a filtration system and then exhausted across the work surface as part of the laminar flows process. Commonly, the filtration system comprises of a pre-filter and a HEPA filter. The Laminar Flow Cabinet is enclosed on the sides and constant positive air pressure is maintained to prevent the intrusion of contaminated room air. Laminar Flow hood provide unidirectional, particle-free air flow to the working area by projecting air through a filtration system and exhausting it across a work surface in a laminar. They provide constant airflow out of the hood and prevent room air to enter the laminar hood.

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